Cystocele occurs after damage of the fascia supporting the bladder and front of the vagina. The bladder can herniate ' bulge ' through the damage 'gape'. The bulge 'hernia' which appear in front of vagina is called cystocele.
The damage to the fascia supporting the bladder and front of the vagina causing Cystocele can occur at vaginal delivery. Menopause and heavy lifting also can cause Cystocele. Chronic cough, constipation or any cause of increased intra-abdominal pressure can cause cystocele.
Types of cystocele depends on site of the tear in the fascia.
The treatment is basically suturing the damaged fascia. A mesh 'a synthetic darn' could be used to strengthen the fascia that is badly damaged or weakened by lack of hormone or age or if a strong repair is required to withstand active sport or physical activity.
The repair could be done separately or in association of other repairs 'posterior repair' or in association of vaginal hysterectomy or incontinence surgery. Occasionally all are combined in one patient.