Ovaries are two organs, each about the size and shape of an almond and are located on each side of the uterus.

Eggs (ova) develop and mature in the ovaries and are released in monthly cycles during your childbearing years.

The Uterus (womb) is the small, hollow, muscular,pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis between the bladder and the rectum that sheds its lining each month during menstruation and in which a fertilized egg (ovum) becomes implanted and fetus  develops.

Uterine cervix (neck of the womb) is the lower part of the uterus that projects into the upper front of the vagina. It is made up of mainly fibrous  and muscle tissue. The cervix is cylindrical in shape. Nearly half its length is visible using a speculum 'medical equipment'; the rest lies above the vagina and not visible.

Fallopian tube: Fallopian tube transport the egg / ovum from the ovary to the uterus (the womb). The Fallopian tubes run between the uterus and ovaries. There are two tubes, right and left.

Vagina is the muscular canal extending from the cervix to the vulva outside of the body. It is usually 15 to 17 cms in length, and its walls are lined with mucus  membrane . The vagina includes two vault-like recessions, the anterior (front) vaginal fornix  and the posterior (rear) vaginal fornix . The cervix protrudes slightly into the upper front of the vagina. Through the cervical os (a hole in the cervix) the sperms make their way into the uterus and tubes. The tiny vaginal glands produce secretions. The fetus passes through the vagina during birth.

Introitus Entrance into the vagina.

Urinary incontinence (UI) The ‘complaint of any involuntary urinary leakage’.

Mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) Involuntary leakage associated with urgency and also with exertion, effort, sneezing or coughing.

Nocturia The complaint of having to wake at night one or more times to void.

Nocturnal enuresis Urinary incontinence occurring during sleep. The term enuresis itself is synonymous with incontinence and, where it is intended to denote incontinence during sleep, it should always be qualified with the adjective ‘nocturnal’.

Stress test A clinical test for the demonstration of stress urinary incontinence. The woman is asked to cough while the observer visualises the external urethral meatus. The test may be undertaken either after filling to a known volume, or prior to micturition, the volume being recorded thereafter. It may be undertaken supine or standing.

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) The complaint of involuntary leakage on effort or exertion or on sneezing or coughing.

Urge urinary incontinence (UUI) Involuntary urine leakage accompanied by or immediately preceded by urgency.

Urgency The ‘complaint of a sudden compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer’.

Rectocele Herniation (protrusion) of the rectum into the vagina.